Agriculture is the mainstay of the Province of Sindh. With its varying climatic conditions and very scanty rainfall, but good soil, man has been practicing agriculture in Sindh since time immemorial, helped by the Indus, one of he longest rivers in the world.
Details of the major crops and yields for 1993-4 in Sukkur district are listed below:

AREA, PRODUCTION, AND YIELD OF MAJOR CROPS

GroupArea in HectaresProduction in M TonYield Per Hectare in Kgs
Rice8265172934043
Wheat1328292770292086
Juwar (Great Millet)136138350613
Bajra (Spiked Millet)744391526
Maize522270517
Grain109098955775
Barley312148474
Rapeseed & Mustard91125584613
Sesame38151250
Sugarcane1213953754144.28
Cotton110172311748481
Tobacco231500

LAND USE AND CROPPING PATTERNS

Most of the agricultural land in Sukkur District is defined as arable irrigated land, with small patches of unused land under rough grazing. Prior to 1972 irrigation water was supplied only in the Kharif season; thereafter, however, the canals of the Guddu Barrage command area were made perennial. This led to increasing salinity and water logging, to the extent that now some 70 per cent of cultivable land is affected.

The land reforms of 1972 included the fixing of sixteen acres as the minimum subsistence holding in Sindh. Table 4.5 shows how those sixteen acres could yield a basic living wage. Cotton, wheat, mustard, sugar cane, and bar seem are the main crops grown on the left bank of the Indus, while the bar seem. Cotton, sugar cane, and oilseed are deemed industrial crops, the rest commercial.

Horticulture plays a relatively small role in the area. The main crops of the Kharif season are mango, date palm, and banana, while those of Rabi are oranges and lemons. The average yield per acre of date palm is seventy-nine Maunds (one Maund= 40 Kgs) of dry dates.

The Agro-industries which arise from the predominant crops include cotton-ginning, biscuit making, oilseed processing, date processing, and molasses and sugar making by traditional and modern methods.

CROPPING INTENSITY

The overall cropping intensity in the country is 137 per cent. It varies from 159 per cent in farms of less than five acres, to 140 per cent in farms of five to under twenty five acres, and 123 per cent in farms of twenty-five acres and above in size. The intensity of cropping is around 135 per cent on owner-operated and owner-cum-tenant-operated farms, but it rises to 141 per cent on tenant-operated farms.
The intensity of cropping in District Sukkur is show in Table 4.7. The figures are taken from the Pakistan Census, Agriculture, 1990 –Province Report- Sindh prepared by the Economic Affairs and Statistics Division, Agricultural Census Organization (pp.121, 127,132,137,143).

THE AGRICULTURAL PASSBOOK SYSTEM

 This was introduced in 1973 by the Federal Government to make it easier for farmers to obtain agricultural credit from lending institutions. The farmer is required to buy a set of two passbooks (one red, one green) from the Post Office and have the particular concerning his land endorsed by the Revenue Department, after which he is eligible for a loan of up to 60 per cent of the value of his land. The Revenue Department retains the red book and updates it according to information supplied by the lender (generally a bank); the green book is retained by the bank as a guarantee for the loan.
     By 1994, 9,861 Passbooks had been issued, out of a total eligibility of 25,079. Despite a mark-up rate of 14 per cent there had been no defaulting.

AREA, PRODUCTION, AND YIELD OF VEGETABLES

GROUPAREA IN HECTARESPRODUCTION IN M TONYIELD PER HECTARE IN KG
FIELD VETCH28702500
LADY FINGER49630066060
TINDA19013246968
BRINJAL26720087521
BITTER GOURD371684541
BOTTLE GOURD201185900
LUFFA282037250
TURNIPS281380013523
ONION19342268211728
CARROT4049012250
TOMATO1198347008
CAULIFLOWER141389857
CABBAGE197249312655
POTATO595359068
SWEET POTATO07253571
RADISH947538011
PEAS09343778
GARDEN PEAS08172125
FENUGREEK18321778
OTHER VEGETABLES RABI38110372722
KHARIF292197552

AREA, PRODUCTION, AND YIELD OF PULSES

GROUPAREA IN HECTARESPRODUCTION IN M TONYIELD PER HECTARE IN KGS
MASH (KHARIF)302128424
MASOOR (LENTIL)953475498
MATTER (CHICKENVETCH)1521750493
MUNG (GREEN GRAM)303128422
OTHER RABI356169475

AREA PRODUCTION, AND YIELD OF CONDIMENTS

GROUPAREA IN HECTARESPRODUCTION IN M TONYIELD PER HECTARE IN KGS
Chillies Rabi3746471730
Chillies60710051656
Ginger24850354
Garlic72544186094
Fennel21500
Coriander332139419
Spearmint95556
Turmeric42500
Others3920513

AREA, PRODUCTION, AND YIELD OF FRUITS FOR 1993-4

GroupArea in HectaresProduction in M.TonsYield per Hectares in Kgs
Banana672343453
Date palm2778126324547
Guava10New Plantation4547
Mango
41329587228
Orange2835612714
Lemon702283257
Grape8344250
Mossambi9303333
Kino7272857
Ber Berry6122000
Other Fruits (Rabi)351801543

Autumn crops-Kharif

Saryoon (Rice)

Jowar (Great Millet)

Bajri (Bulrush Millet)

Makki (Maiz)

Rahan (Cowpeas)

Tir (Sesaum)

Kapah (Cotton)

Kamand (Sugarcane)

Gidro (Melons)

Spring crops-Rabi

Kanak (Wheat)

Jau (Barley)

Channa (Gram)

Matar (Peas)

Toria (Rape)

Gogroo (Turnip)

Fruit

Date

Banana

Lemon

Mango

Agriculture calendar

The agriculture year commences on the day of the first full Moon in Chet. That day and the eight following days (naurata) are lucky days.

The months of the years are known by the following names:

CHETMiddle of March to Middle of April
VESAKHMiddle of April to Middle of May
JETHMiddle of May to Middle of June
AKHARMiddle of June to Middle of July
SAWANMiddle of July to Middle of August
BADOMiddle of August to Middle of Sept
ASSUMiddle of September to Middle of Oct
KATIMiddle of October to Middle of Nov.
NAHRIMiddle of November to Middle of Dec.
POHMiddle of December to Middle of Jan.
MANGHMiddle of January to Middle of February
PHAGUNMiddle of February to Middle of March
Agriculture
Sindh Agriculture

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