Showing posts with label history. Show all posts
Showing posts with label history. Show all posts

Thursday, February 15, 2024

Journey Through Pakistan's Railway: Rohri Train Station

 

A panoramic view of Rohri Junction railway station, a historic and cultural landmark of Pakistan, with trains, platforms, buildings, and hills in the background.


Embark on a captivating journey through Pakistan's railway as we explore the historic Rohri Train Station and its significance in the country's transportation system.

A Brief History of Rohri Train Station

Rohri Train Station, located in Rohri, Pakistan, has a rich history that dates back to its establishment in the late 19th century. It was built during the British Raj and served as an important stop on the Indus Valley Railway, connecting Karachi with the northern regions of British India.

The station played a vital role in facilitating trade and transportation between different parts of the country. Over the years, it has witnessed the transformation of Pakistan's railway system and has become an integral part of the country's transportation infrastructure.

Unique Architectural Wonders at Rohri Train Station

Rohri Train Station is known for its unique architectural wonders that reflect a blend of British colonial and local architectural styles. The station building features intricate designs, grand arches, and large windows that allow natural light to illuminate the interior.

One of the notable architectural elements is the clock tower, which stands tall and serves as a symbol of the station's historical importance. The station's platform is spacious and well-maintained, providing a comfortable waiting area for passengers.

Connecting Pakistan: Routes from Rohri Train Station

Rohri Train Station serves as a major hub, connecting various cities and regions across Pakistan through its extensive railway network. It is a crucial link between Karachi, the country's largest city and economic hub, and other important cities such as Lahore, Islamabad, and Peshawar.

The station offers multiple train routes that cater to both passenger and freight transportation needs. These routes provide convenient access to different parts of the country, allowing people to travel and transport goods efficiently.

Cultural Significance of Rohri Train Station

Rohri Train Station holds great cultural significance for the people of Pakistan. It has witnessed the passage of time and the changing dynamics of the country. Many people have fond memories associated with the station, as it has been a witness to countless journeys, reunions, and farewells.

The station also serves as a meeting point for people from diverse backgrounds, reflecting the cultural diversity of Pakistan. It is a place where people from different regions come together, fostering social interactions and cultural exchange.

Future Development Plans for Rohri Train Station

In order to meet the growing demands of the modern era, there are plans for future development and improvement of Rohri Train Station. These plans include the expansion of the station's facilities to accommodate increasing passenger and freight traffic.

Additionally, efforts are being made to enhance the overall infrastructure and services at the station, ensuring a seamless travel experience for passengers. The aim is to make Rohri Train Station a modern transportation hub that meets international standards and contributes to the development of the region.

  • Rohri Train Station: A Historic and Cultural Landmark of Pakistan
  • Exploring the Wonders of Rohri Train Station: Pakistan’s Railway Heritage
  • How Rohri Train Station Connects Pakistan’s Past, Present, and Future
  • The Story of Rohri Train Station: A Journey Through Pakistan’s Railway History
  • Rohri Train Station: A Symbol of Pakistan’s Transportation Development

Pakistan Railways Website: 

Saturday, December 30, 2023

Nare Shala ناري شالا: A Historic and Progressive Institution for Girls’ Education and Empowerment

Nare Shala ناري شالا is an educational institution that was founded in 1933 by Devan Pasu Mal Bhagwandas Chandwani, a railway officer, in Old Sukkur. In the same year, he also opened Parmeshure Chandwani Girls High School opposite the Sukkur Post Office. These schools offer free training to widows, orphans, and poor girls in various skills, such as sewing, embroidery, handicrafts, soap making, planting, and other arts and crafts. The girls learn to work and think like designers and artists, with intelligence and creativity. The chairman of this organisation at that time was Rai Bahadur Kundan Das. The old buildings of the schools may need to be replaced with new ones soon. The new Government Primary Girls High School Sukkur has been constructed.

A picture of Nare Shala ناري شالا, an educational institution in Old Sukkur, with its old and new buildings and some girls learning various skills

  • Nare Shala ناري شالا
  • Girls’ education and empowerment
  • Free training in arts and crafts
  • Historic and progressive institution
  • Old Sukkur schools

Article Author 
Syed Imdad Hussain Shah Rizvi Kotai’s 

Friday, December 29, 2023

Mohenjo Daro: The Mound of the Dead Men

Aerial view of Mohenjo Daro, an ancient city located in present-day Pakistan.
Mohenjo Daro: A Glimpse into the Past of Pakistan.

Mohenjo-daro Sindhi: موهن جو دڙو‎ Urdu: موئن جو دڑو Mound of the Dead Men Mohenjo Daro is an ancient city located in present-day Pakistan. It was built around 2500 B.C. on the flood plains of the Indus in what is now Pakistan. The city’s well-planned street grid and elaborate drainage system hint that its inhabitants were skilled urban planners with a reverence for the control of water.

      The city’s wealth and stature is evident in artefacts such as ivory, lapis, carnelian, and gold beads, as well as the baked-brick city structures themselves.  The city’s occupants were apparently modest, orderly, and clean, and preferred standardisation in pottery and tools of copper and stone. Seals and weights suggest a system of tightly controlled trade. The city lacked ostentatious palaces, temples, or monuments, and there was no obvious central seat of government or evidence of a king or queen. 

The Indus Valley Civilization and its Iconic Priest-King Sculpture


 A stone statue of a man with a beard and a circular headpiece, wearing a cloak with a distinctive design Ajrak, identified as the Priest-King from the ruined city of Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley Civilization

    The city’s decline remains a puzzle, but some experts believe that climate change and environmental degradation may have played a role.

     It is worth noting that Mohenjo Daro is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is considered among the best preserved urban settlements in South Asia.

      Mohenjo Daro, an ancient city located in present-day Pakistan, was built around 2500 B.C. on the flood plains of the Indus River. It was the largest city of the Indus Civilisation and is believed to have thrived for a thousand years, profiting from trade and engineering feats like the Great Bath.

 The city’s well-planned street grid and elaborate drainage system hint that its inhabitants were skilled urban planners with a reverence for the control of water. The city’s wealth and stature is evident in artefacts such as ivory, lapis, carnelian, and gold beads, as well as the baked-brick city structures themselves. 

     The city’s occupants were apparently modest, orderly, and clean, and preferred standardisation in pottery and tools of copper and stone. Seals and weights suggest a system of tightly controlled trade.

     The city lacked ostentatious palaces, temples, or monuments, and there was no obvious central seat of government or evidence of a king or queen The city’s decline remains a puzzle, but some experts believe that climate change and environmental degradation may have played a role

  • Mohenjo Daro: The Ancient City of the Indus Civilisation
  • Mohenjo Daro: A Glimpse into the Past of Pakistan
  • Mohenjo Daro: The Mound of the Dead Men
  • Mohenjo Daro: A Testament to the Ingenuity of the Indus Valley Civilisation

How to get and do in Mohenjo Daro

 Is approximately 30 kilometre’s away from the nearest major city, Larkana.  The easiest way to get to Mohenjo Daro is by taking a direct flight from Sukkur Airport to Mohenjo Daro Airport.

Alternatively, you can drive along the Indus Highway between Karachi and Peshawar. Rohri / Sukkur Toll Plaza M5 Sukkur Hyderabad MotowaysThe distance between Rohri and Mohenjo Daro is approximately 85.06 kilometres or 52.85 miles.Once you arrive at Mohenjo Daro. 

Sukkur Airport

 Sukkur Airport (IATA: SKZ, ICAO: OPSK), also known as Begum Nusrat Bhutto International Airport Sukkur, is a domestic airport located in Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan. It is a medium-sized airport located about 8 km (5.0 mi) from the center of Sukkur and serves Sukkur and its surrounding areas; Khairpur, Jacobabad, Sibi, and Shikarpur. Officially Site is. https://www.piac.com.pk/

I hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

Wednesday, December 27, 2023

The Rise and Fall of Rohri Cement Factory: A Historical Case Study

Rohri Cement Factory


      A Historical Industrial Site in Sindh Rohri Cement Factory is one of the oldest and largest cement plants in Pakistan. Located in Rohri, a city in the Sukkur District of Sindh Province, the factory was established in 1938 by Associated Cement Companies, a Bombay-based company that owned several cement plants in India and Pakistan.
Rohri Cement factory
Cement Factory Rohri’s 

plant with several buildings, chimneys, and silos.
Rohri’s Cement Factory 



The factory was designed and supplied by F.L. Smith, a Danish engineering company that specialized in cement production equipment¹. The factory had a capacity of producing 200 tons of cement per day, using the wet process method¹. The factory used locally available limestone, clay, and gypsum as raw materials, and coal as fuel.

     The factory played a significant role in the industrial development of the region, as well as the construction of various infrastructure projects in Pakistan. The factory supplied cement for the Sukkur Barrage, the Kotri Barrage, the Mangla Dam, the Tarbela Dam, and the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant, among others.

     The factory also provided employment and livelihood opportunities for thousands of workers and their families. The factory had its own residential colony, hospital, school, mosque, and recreational facilities for its staff and workers². The factory also supported various social and cultural activities in the area, such as sports, festivals, and community service.

     However, the factory faced several challenges and difficulties over the years, such as political instability, labor unrest, environmental issues, and technological obsolescence. The factory gradually lost its competitiveness and profitability, as newer and more efficient cement plants emerged in the market³. The factory also suffered from frequent breakdowns, power outages, and maintenance problems.

In 1996, the factory was privatised and sold to a consortium of local investors, who renamed it as Rohri Cement (Private) Limited. The new owners tried to revive the factory by investing in modernisation and expansion projects, but they failed to achieve the desired results. The factory eventually ceased its operations in 2008, and was declared as a sick industrial unit by the government.

      Today , the factory stands as a silent witness to the history and heritage of the cement industry in Pakistan. The factory is still owned by Rohri Cement (Private) Limited, but it is not operational and is in a state of decay.The factory's buildings, machinery, and equipment are rusting and deteriorating, and some of them have been vandalised or stolen.

     The factory's fate is uncertain, as there are no clear plans or proposals for its preservation or restoration. Some of the factory's former employees and local residents have expressed their concerns and hopes for the factory's future, and have urged the authorities and the owners to take some action to save the factory from further damage and destruction.

     The factory is not only a valuable industrial asset, but also a cultural and historical landmark that deserves to be protected and conserved. The factory represents the legacy and contribution of the cement industry to the development and progress of Pakistan, as well as the memories and experiences of the people who worked and lived there. The factory is a part of the identity and heritage of Rohri, Sukkur, and Sindh, and it should be recognised and respected as such.

I hope you liked the article. If you have any feedback or suggestions, please let me know. 

  • Rohri Cement Factory
  • Historical Industrial Site
  • Cement Industry in Pakistan
  • Industrial Heritage and Preservation
  • Challenges and Opportunities of Reviving Sick Industrial Units


Rohri Cement Factory is an old and large cement plant in Pakistan that was established in 1938 by a Bombay-based company. The factory used the wet process method to produce cement, and supplied cement for various infrastructure projects in Pakistan. The factory also had its own residential colony and social facilities for its workers and staff. However, the factory faced many problems and challenges, and stopped its operations in 2008. The factory is now in a state of decay and neglect, and its future is uncertain

Rohri Cement Private Limited
Head Office: 405, 4th Floor, Panorama Centre, Building No.2, Doctor Plaza, Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan Road, Saddar -Karachi.
Phone # +92-21-36450684
E-mail: info@rohricement.com
Factory: Rohri, Sukkur, Pakistan.
Phone # +92-71-650111

The Indus River and Rohri: A Historical and Cultural Connection

The Indus River is one of the longest and most important rivers in Asia, flowing through China, India, and Pakistan. It has been a source of life, civilisation, and trade for thousands of years, and has witnessed the rise and fall of many empires and cultures. The Indus River is also home to a rich and diverse wildlife, including the endangered Indus river dolphin.

One of the cities that lies on the banks of the Indus River is Rohri, a city of Sukkur District in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Rohri is located on the east bank of the river, directly across from Sukkur, the third largest city in Sindh. Rohri has a long and fascinating history, dating back to the ancient times.

Rohri was originally founded as Roruka, the capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, which is mentioned in early Buddhist literature. Roruka was a major trading center, and was connected to other cities by the Grand Trunk Road, one of the oldest and longest roads in Asia. Roruka was also the site of a famous battle between Alexander the Great and King Porus in 326 BCE.

Roruka was later renamed as Aror, and became the capital of the Ror dynasty, which ruled northern Sindh from the 5th century BCE to the 5th century CE. Aror was then conquered by the Rai dynasty ( Locally known as Raja Dahir ), followed by the Brahman dynasty, which were both Hindu dynasties that resisted the Arab invasion of Sindh in the 8th century CE. Aror was finally captured by the Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim in 711 CE, who established the Umayyad Caliphate in Sindh.

In 962 CE, a massive earthquake struck the region, causing the course of the Indus River to shift. Aror was abandoned and re-founded as Rohri on the new bank of the river. Rohri continued to serve as a busy port and a cultural hub, attracting many saints, poets, and scholars. Rohri is famous for its shrines, such as the Sateen Jo Aastan, the tomb of the Seven Sisters who were the daughters of a Hindu king and converted to Islam. Rohri is also known for its bridges, such as the Lansdowne Bridge and the Ayub Bridge, which span the Indus River and offer access between Rohri and Sukkur.

The Indus River and Rohri have a historical and cultural connection that spans centuries and civilizations. They are both symbols of the diversity, resilience, and beauty of the people and the land of Sindh.



A Brief Introduction to the Rai Dynasty of Sindh
A paragraph that summarises the main points of the text, such as:

A map of the Indian subcontinent in the 6th century CE, showing the political boundaries of various kingdoms and regions. The map is colored according to the dominant religion of each area: Hinduism (orange), Buddhism (yellow), Jainism (green), and Zoroastrianism (red). The map also shows the major rivers, mountains, and cities of the region. The focus of the map is on the province of Sindh, which is located in the lower right corner of the map, along the Indus River. Sindh is marked by a black border and labeled as "Rai dynasty". The Rai dynasty was the first known ruling dynasty of Sindh, and it controlled much of the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent. The map also shows the neighboring kingdoms and regions that had relations with the Rai dynasty, such as the Hephthalites, the Sassanians, the Gupta Empire, the Chalukyas, and the Maitrakas.


Source 

The Harappan Civilization and its Neighbors: This article explores the history, culture, and legacy of the Harappan Civilization, also known as the Indus River Valley Civilization, which flourished along the Indus River and its tributaries from 3300 to 1300 BCE. It highlights the features and achievements of its two main urban centers, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and how they differed from and interacted with other ancient civilisations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China.

The Indus River and its Role in Asia: This article provides a comprehensive overview of the Indus River, one of the major rivers in Asia. It follows the source, path, branches, watershed, weather, environment, and past of the river, as well as its importance for the people and the region of South Asia.


The Harappan Culture and its History: This article introduces the Harappan Culture, also known as the Indus River Valley Civilization, which thrived along the Indus River and its branches from 3300 to 1300 BCE. It describes the location, society, commerce, faith, and downfall of this ancient civilisations.







Tuesday, December 26, 2023

Rohri Pays Tribute to the Casualties of the Indian Bombing on December 5th

     The war between India and Pakistan in 1971 brought a lot of destruction to Rohri. On December 5, a Sunday, two Indian jets flew low over Rohri and bombed the railway station. They targeted the Lansdowne bridge and the office of the station master. The Mehran train, which went from Karachi to Lahore via Rohri, was stopped at the junction. The Indian Air Force had been attacking the Pakistani railways to cut off their supply lines and troop movements. The train was one of their victims. A loud sound and two big blasts shook the station. After that, Indian jets would return every day. On December 10, a Friday, they struck again. They hit the area from the Railway Girls School to the Takkar muhala. Many people lost their lives in the attack, and the rest of Rohri fled in panic, leaving the city deserted. The war came to an end on December 13, when General Niazi gave up in Dacca, and then the people came back to Rohri.




 Rohri Pays Tribute to the Casualties of the Indian Bombing on December 5th
https://youtu.be/o9K-PLa2Yeg


Source: 

 There are many eyewitness accounts of war from different times and places. Some of them are published in books, articles, or websites, while others are recorded in oral histories or archives. Here are some examples of sources that you can explore: 

 Note:

 Eyewitnesses can offer a unique and personal perspective on an event that may not be captured by other sources of information, such as documents, records, or media. Eyewitnesses can also help to corroborate or contradict other evidence, and to fill in the gaps or resolve the ambiguities in the historical or legal record. Eyewitnesses can also provide emotional and moral insights that can enrich our understanding and appreciation of the human experience of an event. Therefore, eyewitnesses play a crucial role in legal and historical contexts, as they can provide valuable information and evidence that can help to establish the facts and the truth of what happened.

Thank you very much for sharing your story with us

Wednesday, December 20, 2023

Lansdowne Bridge Rohri: A Historic and Engineering Marvel

Lansdowne Bridge Rohri:    

 A Historic and Engineering Marvel The Lansdowne Bridge Rohri is a 19th-century bridge that spans the Indus River between the cities of Sukkur and Rohri, in the Sindh province of Pakistan. It was named after Lord Lansdowne, the viceroy of India at the time of its inauguration in 1889. The bridge is a remarkable feat of engineering, as it was the longest cantilever bridge in the world when it was completed, and it had to support the load of heavy steam locomotives. The bridge also has a significant historical and cultural value, as it connected the regions of Sindh and Balochistan, and facilitated trade and travel across the Indus Valley.

 Design and Construction 

    The Lansdowne Bridge Rohri was designed by Sir Alexander Meadows Rendel, a British civil engineer who specialized in railway and bridge projects. He designed the bridge as a cantilever truss, which consists of two arms projecting from each pier and meeting at the center without any intermediate support. The bridge has a total length of 820 feet, and a span of 790 feet, making it the longest rigid girder bridge in the world at the time. The girder work, weighing a massive 3,300 tons, was manufactured in London by the firm of Westwood, Baillie and erected by F.E. Robertson, and Hecquet

     The construction of the bridge was a challenging task, as the river bed at the site was not rocky but silty, making it difficult to build a stable foundation. Moreover, the river was prone to floods and changes in its course, which posed a risk to the workers and the materials. The construction also claimed six lives, four men fell from the dizzy heights and two were killed by tools falling on them. The cost of the bridge was Rs 2.7 million, including Rs 276,000 that were spent on foundations only.
     The bridge was inaugurated on March 25, 1889, by Lord Reay, the governor of Bombay, who deputized for Lord Lansdowne, the viceroy of India. The bridge allowed for easier rail access between Sindh and Balochistan, and also linked the westernmost post of Khyber Pass to the eastern city of Calcutta. The bridge was a vital part of the Indus Valley State Railway, which was later merged into the North-Western Railway, and then the Pakistan Railways.

Legacy and Significance 

     The Lansdowne Bridge Rohri is not only a remarkable engineering achievement, but also a symbol of the historical and cultural heritage of the region. The bridge connects the two ancient cities of Sukkur and Rohri, which have been inhabited since the Indus Valley Civilization, and have witnessed the rise and fall of various empires and dynasties. The bridge also overlooks the Bukkur Island, which is home to several historical monuments, such as the Tomb of Khwaja Khizr, the Fort of Bukkur, and the Masjid of Mir Masum. The bridge also offers a scenic view of the Indus River, which is the lifeline of the region and the source of its rich agriculture and biodiversity.

     The bridge has been a witness to many historical events and changes, such as the Partition of India, the creation of Pakistan, the wars with India, and the development of the country. The bridge has also been a source of inspiration and pride for many people, such as poets, writers, artists, and travelers, who have praised its beauty and grandeur. The bridge is also a popular tourist attraction, and a site of festivals and celebrations, such as the Sindhi Culture Day, the Independence Day, and the Basant Festival.

     The Lansdowne Bridge Rohri is a historic and engineering marvel that deserves to be preserved and appreciated for its contribution to the region and the country. The bridge is a testament to the skill and vision of its designers and builders, and the resilience and diversity of its people. The bridge is a bridge of history, culture, and progress.




Sunday, December 17, 2023

Ayoub Bridge: A Marvel of Engineering and History in Pakistan

The Ayoub bridge is a railway bridge over the River Indus between Rohri and Sukkur in Sindh, Pakistan. It was inaugurated by President Ayub Khan in 1962, and it is the world’s third longest railway arch span and the first railway bridge in the world to be slung on coiled wire rope suspenders. The bridge is about 806 feet long, 247 feet high and cost 21.6 million PKR. It has served for 50 years by providing a strong link for rail traffic.

The bridge was designed by David B. Steinman, a renowned American engineer who also reconstructed the Brooklyn Bridge in New York. The contractor was Dorman Long Gammon of London, famous for the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932. The construction of the bridge was challenging, as the river bed had rocks that did not allow the pillars to withstand the constant flow and pressure of water. Therefore, four huge cemented abutments were made on each side of the river banks, and then the steel arch was lifted and fixed on them with the help of cranes and cables.

The bridge is a symbol of engineering excellence and national pride for Pakistan. It also has historical and cultural significance, as it replaced the old Lansdowne Bridge that was used for boat and bicycle transport between Sukkur and Rohri. The bridge offers a spectacular view of the river and the surrounding landscape, especially at sunset. You can watch a video of the bridge from a train journey here

Source 
Ayoub Bridge at sunset The bridge offers a spectacular view of the river and the surrounding landscape, especially at sunset