Tuesday, December 26, 2023

Rohri Pays Tribute to the Casualties of the Indian Bombing on December 5th

     The war between India and Pakistan in 1971 brought a lot of destruction to Rohri. On December 5, a Sunday, two Indian jets flew low over Rohri and bombed the railway station. They targeted the Lansdowne bridge and the office of the station master. The Mehran train, which went from Karachi to Lahore via Rohri, was stopped at the junction. The Indian Air Force had been attacking the Pakistani railways to cut off their supply lines and troop movements. The train was one of their victims. A loud sound and two big blasts shook the station. After that, Indian jets would return every day. On December 10, a Friday, they struck again. They hit the area from the Railway Girls School to the Takkar muhala. Many people lost their lives in the attack, and the rest of Rohri fled in panic, leaving the city deserted. The war came to an end on December 13, when General Niazi gave up in Dacca, and then the people came back to Rohri.

 Rohri Pays Tribute to the Casualties of the Indian Bombing on December 5th


 There are many eyewitness accounts of war from different times and places. Some of them are published in books, articles, or websites, while others are recorded in oral histories or archives. Here are some examples of sources that you can explore: 


 Eyewitnesses can offer a unique and personal perspective on an event that may not be captured by other sources of information, such as documents, records, or media. Eyewitnesses can also help to corroborate or contradict other evidence, and to fill in the gaps or resolve the ambiguities in the historical or legal record. Eyewitnesses can also provide emotional and moral insights that can enrich our understanding and appreciation of the human experience of an event. Therefore, eyewitnesses play a crucial role in legal and historical contexts, as they can provide valuable information and evidence that can help to establish the facts and the truth of what happened.

Thank you very much for sharing your story with us

Sunday, December 24, 2023

Exploring the Kot Diji Fort: A Historical and Cultural Treasure of Pakistan

Kot Diji (Sindhiڪوٽ ڏیجيUrduکوٹ ڈیجی)

A view of a stone fort on a hill with a blue sky and green trees in the background

     Pakistan is a country with a rich and diverse history, culture, and heritage. One of the most fascinating and impressive examples of this is the Kot Diji Fort, an 18th-century fort that stands on a hill overlooking the town of Kot Diji in Khairpur District, Sindh. The fort is a symbol of the Talpur dynasty, which ruled over Upper Sindh from 1783 to 1843, and resisted the British invasion until their defeat at the Battle of Miani.      

     The fort is also located near a prehistoric archaeological site, where remains of a pre-Harappan civilization dating back to 2500 to 2800 BCE have been found. This site is considered to be the forerunner of the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the oldest and most advanced civilizations in the world.

     In this article, we will take a closer look at the Kot Diji Fort, its history, architecture, and significance, and why it is a must-visit destination for anyone interested in the heritage of Pakistan.

History of the Kot Diji Fort

The Kot Diji Fort, also known as Fort Ahmadabad, was built by Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur, the founder of the Kingdom of Upper Sindh, between 1785 and 1795. The fort was named after his daughter, Bibi Fatima, who was also known as Kot Diji. The fort was designed to withstand any attack from the enemies, especially the British, who were expanding their influence in the region. The fort was never conquered by any foreign power, and remained the stronghold of the Talpur rulers until 1843, when they were defeated by the British at the Battle of Miani. The fort was then used as a military outpost by the British until 1947, when Pakistan gained its independence.

Architecture of the Kot Diji Fort

The fort is built on a high hill, about 110 feet above the ground, with 30 feet high walls. It was constructed with locally available kiln-baked bricks and no stone was used in its construction because the stone of this region is brittle and easily breaks into pieces. The fort has a perimeter of 1.8 kilometers and has only one entrance, called the Shahi Darwaza, which is 13 feet high and 10 feet wide, and is reinforced with 235 pointed iron spikes to prevent any enemy attack. The fort has three strategically placed towers, each 50 feet tall, and several sites for cannon placement. It also has numerous inner passages, cells, and chambers for protection and administration. The fort also contains a water reservoir, a munition storage, a prison, a courtroom, and a small regal residence.

Significance of the Kot Diji Fort

The Kot Diji Fort is a remarkable example of the rich and diverse history of Pakistan, and a testament to the courage and resilience of the people who built it and defended it. The fort offers a stunning view of the town of Kot Diji, and the surrounding landscape of the Thar Desert. The fort is also located near a prehistoric archaeological site, where remains of a pre-Harappan civilization dating back to 2500 to 2800 BCE have been found. This site is considered to be the forerunner of the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the oldest and most advanced civilizations in the world. The site has revealed evidence of urban planning, pottery, bronze tools, and stone artifacts that show the cultural and technological development of the people who lived there.

     The Kot Diji Fort is a protected heritage site, and a popular tourist attraction. It is a place where visitors can learn about the history and culture of Pakistan, and appreciate the beauty and craftsmanship of the fort. The fort is also a source of pride and inspiration for the people of Pakistan, as it represents their glorious past and their potential for the future.

How to Visit Kot Diji: A Guide for Travelers

If you are looking for a unique and memorable destination in Pakistan, you should consider visiting Kot Diji, a historical and archaeological site in Sindh province. Kot Diji is home to an 18th-century fort and a prehistoric site that are both worth exploring. In this article, I will share with you some tips and information on how to visit Kot Diji, what to see and do there, and why it is a place of great cultural and historical significance.

How to get to Kot Diji

Kot Diji is located about 25 km (15 mi) south of Khairpur, the capital of Khairpur District, on the east bank of the Indus River. You can reach Kot Diji by road from Khairpur, which is well-connected by bus and train to other major cities in Pakistan, such as Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, and Multan. You can also take a taxi or rent a car from Khairpur to Kot Diji, which will take about 30 minutes. Alternatively, you can fly to Sukkur Airport, which is about 80 km (50 mi) north of Kot Diji, and then take a bus or a taxi to Khairpur and then to Kot Diji.

What to see and do in Kot Diji

The main attraction in Kot Diji is the Kot Diji Fort, also known as Fort Ahmadabad, which was built by Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur, the founder of the Kingdom of Upper Sindh, between 1785 and 1795. The fort is a magnificent example of the military and architectural prowess of the Talpur dynasty, which ruled over Upper Sindh from 1783 to 1843. The fort is made of limestone and burnt bricks, and has a perimeter of 1.8 kilometers. It has three towers, each 50 feet tall, and 30-foot-high walls that encircle the uppermost part of the hill. The fort has several sites for cannon placement, and numerous inner passages for protection. It also has a water reservoir, a munition storage, a prison, a courtroom, and a small regal residence.

     You can enter the fort through the Shahi Darwaza, the only entrance, which is 13 feet high and 10 feet wide, and is reinforced with 235 pointed iron spikes to prevent any enemy attack. Inside the fort, you can explore the various chambers, cells, and passages, and admire the intricate details and decorations. You can also enjoy the stunning view of the town of Kot Diji, and the surrounding landscape of the Thar Desert, from the top of the fort.

Another attraction in Kot Diji is the archaeological site, which is located near the fort. This site is considered to be the forerunner of the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the oldest and most advanced civilizations in the world. The site dates back to 3300 BCE, and reveals evidence of urban planning, pottery, bronze tools, and stone artifacts that show the cultural and technological development of the people who lived there. You can see some of the excavated remains and artifacts at the site, and learn more about the history and culture of this ancient civilization.

Why visit Kot Diji

     Kot Diji is a place where you can experience the rich and diverse history and heritage of Pakistan, and appreciate the beauty and craftsmanship of the fort and the prehistoric site. Kot Diji is a place where you can learn about the history and culture of the Talpur dynasty, which resisted the British invasion until their defeat at the Battle of Miani in 1843. Kot Diji is also a place where you can discover the origins of the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the region around 2500 BCE, and influenced the cultures of South Asia and beyond. Kot Diji is a place where you can enjoy the scenic views of the Indus River, the Thar Desert, and the Rohri Hills, and experience the rural life and hospitality of the Sindhi people.

I hope you enjoyed this article, and found it useful for planning your trip to Kot Diji. If you did, please share it with your friends and family, and let me know your feedback in the comments. Thank you for reading, and have a great day! 

  • History of Kot Digi Fort
  • Architecture of Kot Digi Fort
  • Significance of Kot Digi Fort
  • Kot Digi Fort and Pre-Harappan Civilization
  • Kot Digi Fort and Talpur Dynasty
  • Kot Digi Fort and British Invasion
  • Kot Digi Fort and Heritage of Pakistan
  • Kot Digi Fort and Tourism
  • Kot Digi Fort and Thar Desert
  • Kot Digi Fort and Indus Valley Civilization

Saturday, December 23, 2023

Exploring Sadh Belo rohri: The Largest Hindu Temple in Pakistan

Picture Source Wikipedia Sadh Belo
Sadh Belo (Sindhiساڌ ٻيلوUrduسادھ بھيلو) It’s Sindhi Language  Meaning Island of Sadh

     Sukkur, a city in the Sindh province of Pakistan, is known for its historical and cultural attractions. One of the most remarkable places in Sukkur is Sadhu Belo, an island in the Indus River that is home to a highly revered Hindu temple complex. Sadhu Belo, which means the woods of the sage, is associated with the syncretic Udasi movement of Sikhism. The island is also famous for Teerath Asthan, which is the biggest Hindu temple in Pakistan.

The History of Sadhu Belo

The island of Sadhu Belo was once a forested island called Menak Parbat. According to legend, the island was visited by Lord Rama, the hero of the Hindu epic Ramayana, during his exile. The island was also a place of meditation for many sages and saints.

The most prominent figure in the history of Sadhu Belo is Baba Bankhandi Maharaj, an Udasi saint who founded the temple complex in 1823. Baba Bankhandi Maharaj was born as Balchand Sharma, and he came to Sindh from either Delhi or Nepal when he was 15 years old. He settled on the island and became known as the sage of the woods. He established a dhuni, a sacred fire, on the island and attracted many followers and devotees. He also built a temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, the supreme deity of Hinduism.

Baba Bankhandi Maharaj was a visionary and a philanthropist. He is credited with building a bridge across the Indus River, connecting Sukkur and Rohri . He also dug wells and planted trees on the island, making it a green and fertile place. He also performed many miracles and healed many people. He died in 1899 and his samadhi, or tomb, is located on the island.

The Architecture of Sadhu Belo

The temple complex of Sadhu Belo is spread over two interconnected islands: Sadhu Belo and Deen Belo. The complex has nine temples, a library, a dining area, a garden, and residences for monks and pilgrims. The temples are dedicated to various Hindu gods and goddesses, such as Shiva, Vishnu, Ganesha, Hanuman, Durga, and Kali. The temples are adorned with intricate marble work, colorful paintings, and statues. The complex also has a museum that displays relics and artifacts related to the history and culture of Hinduism and Sikhism in Sindh.

The most prominent temple in the complex is Teerath Asthan, which means the place of pilgrimage. Teerath Asthan is the biggest Hindu temple in Pakistan and can accommodate up to 10,000 people. The temple was built in 1938 by Sant Ganga Ram, a disciple of Baba Bankhandi Maharaj. The temple has a dome-shaped roof and a spire that rises above the river. The temple has a large hall where the main idol of Lord Shiva is installed. The temple also has a shivalinga, a symbol of Shiva, that is believed to have been brought by Baba Bankhandi Maharaj from the Himalayas. The temple is the site of many festivals and ceremonies, such as Shivratri, the birthday of Lord Shiva, and Bankhandi Mela, the death anniversary of Baba Bankhandi Maharaj.

The Significance of Sadhu Belo

Sadhu Belo is a sacred and peaceful place for Hindus and Sikhs in Pakistan and abroad. The island is a symbol of harmony and tolerance, as it welcomes people of all faiths and backgrounds. The island is also a source of inspiration and education, as it preserves and promotes the rich heritage and traditions of Hinduism and Sikhism in Sindh. The island is also a place of service and charity, as it provides free food, water, and accommodation to the visitors and the needy.

Sadhu Belo is a unique and beautiful island that reflects the diversity and spirituality of Pakistan. It is a place that deserves to be visited and appreciated by everyone.

Source Books Sukkur and Online source 

PML-F leader files nomination forms for PS 23

Syed Ghazanfar Hussain Musavi, the leader of the Pakistan Muslim League - Functional (PML-F) in Sukkur district and the coordinator of the Joint Democratic Alliance (JDA), filed his nomination forms for the Provincial Assembly seat PS 23 on Friday. He was accompanied by a large number of PML-F officials and workers, who expressed their support and confidence in his candidacy. 

      He appealed to the voters to support him and the JDA in the upcoming election, and to reject the corrupt and incompetent rulers who had failed to deliver on their promises. He said that the PML-F and the JDA would bring a positive change in the province, and would restore the rights and dignity of the people.

      The PML-F is a nationalist and pro-Hurs clan political party, which is one of the factions of the Pakistan Muslim League. The party is led by Pir Pagara Syed Sibghatullah Shah Rashdi III, who is the spiritual leader of the Hurs, a Sufi order that fought against the British colonial rule. The party has a strong base in the rural areas of Sindh, especially in the districts of Khairpur, Sanghar, Nawabshah and Sukkur.  

     The PS 23 constituency covers the Rohri and Salehpat talukas of Sukkur district. It is considered to be a stronghold of the PPP, which has won the seat in the last three elections. The current MPA from the constituency is Syed Nasir Hussain Shah, who is also the provincial minister for works and services. He is expected to face a tough competition from Sayed Ghazafar Hussain Shah Musavi and other candidates in the next election.

     The election for the Provincial Assembly of Sindh is scheduled to be held on March 10, 2024, along with the National Assembly and other provincial assemblies. The election commission has announced that the nomination papers of the candidates will be scrutinized from December 25 to December 29, and the final list of candidates will be published on January 8, 2024

Sayed Ghazafar Hussain Shah Musavi

Source On line 
If you have suggestions please comments 

Friday, December 22, 2023

Khwaja Khizr: The Mysterious Saint of Water

 Khwaja Khizr is a Sufi saint who is associated with water, wisdom, and eternal life. He is revered by Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs in various regions of South Asia, especially in Pakistan and India. He is also known by other names, such as Zinda Pir, Khwaja Khidr, Khizr Elias, and Khwaja Pir.

Khawaja Khizr’s life and miracles

The date calculated from the slab states that the shrine was built in 341 AH (952 AD). However, this is a still contested fact by historians and archaeologists.

A niche for lighting earthen lamps.

The throne or gaddi of Khwaja Khizr.

     According to some traditions, Khwaja Khizr is the son of Darya Khan, a ruler of Multan in the 15th century. He was a devout Muslim who spent his life in prayer and meditation. He also performed many miracles, such as healing the sick, reviving the dead, and controlling the waters. He is said to have a green complexion and a green cloak, symbolizing his connection to water and vegetation. He is also believed to have the power of invisibility and to appear and disappear at will.

     Some scholars identify Khwaja Khizr with al-Khidr, a figure mentioned in the Quran as a righteous servant of God who possessed great knowledge and mystic insight. He was the companion and teacher of the prophet Musa (Moses), who questioned him about his seemingly unjust actions, such as sinking a ship, killing a young man, and repairing a wall. Al-Khidr explained that his actions had hidden wisdom and benefits that Musa could not comprehend. Al-Khidr is also considered to be a prophet, an angel, or a wali (friend of God) by different Islamic sects and schools of thought.

     Another possible identification of Khwaja Khizr is with Utnapishtim, a character from the ancient Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh. He was the survivor of a great flood that wiped out humanity, and he was granted immortality by the gods. He lived on an island at the mouth of the rivers, where he met Gilgamesh, the king of Uruk, who sought the secret of eternal life. Utnapishtim told him the story of the flood and tested him with various challenges, but Gilgamesh failed to achieve his goal.

     Khwaja Khizr is also associated with various other figures and legends from different cultures and religions, such as Saint George, Elijah, John the Baptist, Sargis the General, and Jhulelal. He is seen as a patron of travelers, sailors, fishermen, and seekers of spiritual knowledge. He is also a protector of rivers, lakes, springs, and wells. He is believed to appear to his devotees in times of need and to grant them blessings and guidance.

     Khwaja Khizr is honored and celebrated in various ways by his followers. He has many shrines and tombs dedicated to him, such as the Khwaja Khizr Tomb in Sonipat, India, the Zinda Pir Shrine in Sukkur, Pakistan, and the Khwaja Khizr Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan. He is also commemorated on the festival of Hıdırellez, which marks the arrival of spring and the meeting of Khwaja Khizr and Elijah. On this day, people make wishes, offer prayers, and perform rituals near water sources, hoping to receive the grace and favor of Khwaja Khizr.

Feel free comments 

Winter Solstice: The Shortest Day and the Longest Night of the Year

Celebrating the Winter Solstice: A Guide to the Festivals and Traditions Around the World

As we reach the end of the year 2023, tomorrow, on December 22 (Friday), will be the shortest day of the year. This is known as the winter solstice, and it happens when the Northern Hemisphere experiences the fewest daylight hours. While people in the southern hemisphere are gearing up for summer, those in the north are experiencing the official start of winter.

The term "solstice" comes from Latin words meaning "sun" and "to come to a stop or make stand." During the winter solstice, which falls on the first day of winter, the sun appears lower in the sky, leading to shorter days and longer nights. This year, on December 23, we'll have the longest night, with the sun rising at 6:59 AM and setting at 5:10 PM, giving us over 14 hours of darkness.

The science behind the winter solstice lies in the Earth's tilt, causing sunlight to travel through more of the atmosphere, making it weaker and colder. This tilt results in the coldest and darkest part of the year, with longer shadows and a distinctive change in the duration of daylight.

But the winter solstice is not all gloomy and bleak. It also marks a turning point, as the days will start to get longer and the nights will im start to get shorter. Many cultures and traditions celebrate the winter solstice as a symbol of rebirth, renewal, and hope. Some of the most popular festivals and rituals include:


     A pagan festival that honors the sun god and the cycle of nature. It involves lighting candles, burning logs, exchanging gifts, and feasting.


      A Christian holiday that commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ. It involves decorating trees, hanging wreaths, singing carols, and giving presents.


     A Jewish festival that celebrates the miracle of the oil that lasted for eight days in the Temple of Jerusalem. It involves lighting menorahs, playing dreidels, eating latkes, and giving gelt.


    A African-American cultural celebration that honors the principles of unity, self-determination, collective work, cooperative economics, purpose, creativity, and faith. It involves lighting kinara candles, wearing colorful clothes, exchanging gifts, and performing music and dance.


     A Chinese festival that marks the arrival of winter and the increase of yang energy. It involves eating tangyuan, a sweet rice ball soup, and visiting family and friends.

The winter solstice is a time to reflect on the past year, appreciate the present moment, and look forward to the future. It is also a time to enjoy the beauty and wonder of nature, and to celebrate the diversity and richness of human culture. Whether you observe the winter solstice in a religious, spiritual, or secular way, you can find meaning and joy in this special day. 

Wednesday, December 20, 2023

Lansdowne Bridge Rohri: A Historic and Engineering Marvel

Lansdowne Bridge Rohri:    

 A Historic and Engineering Marvel The Lansdowne Bridge Rohri is a 19th-century bridge that spans the Indus River between the cities of Sukkur and Rohri, in the Sindh province of Pakistan. It was named after Lord Lansdowne, the viceroy of India at the time of its inauguration in 1889. The bridge is a remarkable feat of engineering, as it was the longest cantilever bridge in the world when it was completed, and it had to support the load of heavy steam locomotives. The bridge also has a significant historical and cultural value, as it connected the regions of Sindh and Balochistan, and facilitated trade and travel across the Indus Valley.

 Design and Construction 

    The Lansdowne Bridge Rohri was designed by Sir Alexander Meadows Rendel, a British civil engineer who specialized in railway and bridge projects. He designed the bridge as a cantilever truss, which consists of two arms projecting from each pier and meeting at the center without any intermediate support. The bridge has a total length of 820 feet, and a span of 790 feet, making it the longest rigid girder bridge in the world at the time. The girder work, weighing a massive 3,300 tons, was manufactured in London by the firm of Westwood, Baillie and erected by F.E. Robertson, and Hecquet

     The construction of the bridge was a challenging task, as the river bed at the site was not rocky but silty, making it difficult to build a stable foundation. Moreover, the river was prone to floods and changes in its course, which posed a risk to the workers and the materials. The construction also claimed six lives, four men fell from the dizzy heights and two were killed by tools falling on them. The cost of the bridge was Rs 2.7 million, including Rs 276,000 that were spent on foundations only.
     The bridge was inaugurated on March 25, 1889, by Lord Reay, the governor of Bombay, who deputized for Lord Lansdowne, the viceroy of India. The bridge allowed for easier rail access between Sindh and Balochistan, and also linked the westernmost post of Khyber Pass to the eastern city of Calcutta. The bridge was a vital part of the Indus Valley State Railway, which was later merged into the North-Western Railway, and then the Pakistan Railways.

Legacy and Significance 

     The Lansdowne Bridge Rohri is not only a remarkable engineering achievement, but also a symbol of the historical and cultural heritage of the region. The bridge connects the two ancient cities of Sukkur and Rohri, which have been inhabited since the Indus Valley Civilization, and have witnessed the rise and fall of various empires and dynasties. The bridge also overlooks the Bukkur Island, which is home to several historical monuments, such as the Tomb of Khwaja Khizr, the Fort of Bukkur, and the Masjid of Mir Masum. The bridge also offers a scenic view of the Indus River, which is the lifeline of the region and the source of its rich agriculture and biodiversity.

     The bridge has been a witness to many historical events and changes, such as the Partition of India, the creation of Pakistan, the wars with India, and the development of the country. The bridge has also been a source of inspiration and pride for many people, such as poets, writers, artists, and travelers, who have praised its beauty and grandeur. The bridge is also a popular tourist attraction, and a site of festivals and celebrations, such as the Sindhi Culture Day, the Independence Day, and the Basant Festival.

     The Lansdowne Bridge Rohri is a historic and engineering marvel that deserves to be preserved and appreciated for its contribution to the region and the country. The bridge is a testament to the skill and vision of its designers and builders, and the resilience and diversity of its people. The bridge is a bridge of history, culture, and progress.