Saturday, December 30, 2023

Protecting the Indus River Dolphins: A Call for Action


A recent meeting of Pakistani environmentalists and experts in Sukkur at the Indus River Dolphin Conservation Center, organised by WWF Pakistan, discussed the deaths of Indus River dolphins and urged for a complete ban on fishing in the dolphin reserve area. The meeting was prompted by the discovery of five dead dolphins last month, four of which were found near Rohri at the village of Ali Wahan. Three of the dead dolphins were females. Two of them were buried, while the other three were examined by WWF Pakistan conservationists Muhammad Imran, Liaqat Ali Khokhar, cetacean expert Francois Xavier Pelletier, and Sindh Wildlife Department staff. The examination revealed that the dolphins died from either net entanglement or chemical poisoning. Samples were collected for further testing and a report will be released after the analysis. Uzma Noureen, the project coordinator for the Indus River Dolphin Conservation Project (IRDCP), said that an action plan against the use of harmful chemicals will be developed once the samples are analysed. She also mentioned that a dolphin was rescued from the Nara Canal before the deaths were reported. Ghulam Mustafa Gopang, the district officer of the Sindh Fisheries Department, expressed his worry about the fishing practices and said that they need to be changed or improved. Taj Muhammad Sheikh, the deputy conservator of the wildlife department, demanded a ban on fishing in the dolphin reserve area. Abdul Sattar Saryo, the assistant engineer of the Irrigation Department, said that the department will offer any assistance to monitor the barrage gates, canals, and any other places where dolphins might be in trouble.  

     I appreciate that Pakistan is taking steps to protect its river dolphin population, but I think more needs to be done. This rare dolphin has lost 80% of its original habitat due to water scarcity, excessive use of agrochemicals in the river basin, and discharge of untreated wastewater. It has also suffered from illegal fishing methods that involve nets and poisons that kill the dolphins. These dolphins, along with their relatives the Ganges and Amazon River dolphins, are indicators of freshwater quality. They share their habitat with many other aquatic animals that depend on them. If these dolphins disappear, the whole ecosystem will be affected. That is why I strongly believe that serious measures should be taken to restore their populations. One way to do this is to raise awareness among the public about the status and importance of these dolphins. Another way is to educate the fishermen about the ecological role of these dolphins and how to avoid harming them. This way, the river dolphins can reclaim their ancestral range and thrive in their native rivers.


  • How Pakistan Can Save Its Endangered River Dolphins
  • The Plight of the Indus River Dolphins: Causes and Solutions
  • Indus River Dolphins: A Rare Species Facing Multiple Threats
  • Why Pakistan Needs to Ban Fishing in the Dolphin Reserve Area
  • Protecting the Indus River Dolphins: A Call for Action


Source: 30/12/2023

Forest Department Government’s of Sindh Official


#SaveTheIndusDolphins
#IndusDolphinReserve
#BanFishingInDolphinArea
#ProtectTheRiverEcosystem
#DolphinsAreOurFriends



A group of people wearing protective masks and gloves holding a banner that says “Save the Indus River Dolphins” in front of a river.

Nare Shala ناري شالا: A Historic and Progressive Institution for Girls’ Education and Empowerment

Nare Shala ناري شالا is an educational institution that was founded in 1933 by Devan Pasu Mal Bhagwandas Chandwani, a railway officer, in Old Sukkur. In the same year, he also opened Parmeshure Chandwani Girls High School opposite the Sukkur Post Office. These schools offer free training to widows, orphans, and poor girls in various skills, such as sewing, embroidery, handicrafts, soap making, planting, and other arts and crafts. The girls learn to work and think like designers and artists, with intelligence and creativity. The chairman of this organisation at that time was Rai Bahadur Kundan Das. The old buildings of the schools may need to be replaced with new ones soon. The new Government Primary Girls High School Sukkur has been constructed.

A picture of Nare Shala ناري شالا, an educational institution in Old Sukkur, with its old and new buildings and some girls learning various skills

  • Nare Shala ناري شالا
  • Girls’ education and empowerment
  • Free training in arts and crafts
  • Historic and progressive institution
  • Old Sukkur schools

Article Author 
Syed Imdad Hussain Shah Rizvi Kotai’s 

Friday, December 29, 2023

Mohenjo Daro: The Mound of the Dead Men

Aerial view of Mohenjo Daro, an ancient city located in present-day Pakistan.
Mohenjo Daro: A Glimpse into the Past of Pakistan.

Mohenjo-daro Sindhi: موهن جو دڙو‎ Urdu: موئن جو دڑو Mound of the Dead Men Mohenjo Daro is an ancient city located in present-day Pakistan. It was built around 2500 B.C. on the flood plains of the Indus in what is now Pakistan. The city’s well-planned street grid and elaborate drainage system hint that its inhabitants were skilled urban planners with a reverence for the control of water.

      The city’s wealth and stature is evident in artefacts such as ivory, lapis, carnelian, and gold beads, as well as the baked-brick city structures themselves.  The city’s occupants were apparently modest, orderly, and clean, and preferred standardisation in pottery and tools of copper and stone. Seals and weights suggest a system of tightly controlled trade. The city lacked ostentatious palaces, temples, or monuments, and there was no obvious central seat of government or evidence of a king or queen. 

The Indus Valley Civilization and its Iconic Priest-King Sculpture


 A stone statue of a man with a beard and a circular headpiece, wearing a cloak with a distinctive design Ajrak, identified as the Priest-King from the ruined city of Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley Civilization

    The city’s decline remains a puzzle, but some experts believe that climate change and environmental degradation may have played a role.

     It is worth noting that Mohenjo Daro is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is considered among the best preserved urban settlements in South Asia.

      Mohenjo Daro, an ancient city located in present-day Pakistan, was built around 2500 B.C. on the flood plains of the Indus River. It was the largest city of the Indus Civilisation and is believed to have thrived for a thousand years, profiting from trade and engineering feats like the Great Bath.

 The city’s well-planned street grid and elaborate drainage system hint that its inhabitants were skilled urban planners with a reverence for the control of water. The city’s wealth and stature is evident in artefacts such as ivory, lapis, carnelian, and gold beads, as well as the baked-brick city structures themselves. 

     The city’s occupants were apparently modest, orderly, and clean, and preferred standardisation in pottery and tools of copper and stone. Seals and weights suggest a system of tightly controlled trade.

     The city lacked ostentatious palaces, temples, or monuments, and there was no obvious central seat of government or evidence of a king or queen The city’s decline remains a puzzle, but some experts believe that climate change and environmental degradation may have played a role

  • Mohenjo Daro: The Ancient City of the Indus Civilisation
  • Mohenjo Daro: A Glimpse into the Past of Pakistan
  • Mohenjo Daro: The Mound of the Dead Men
  • Mohenjo Daro: A Testament to the Ingenuity of the Indus Valley Civilisation

How to get and do in Mohenjo Daro

 Is approximately 30 kilometre’s away from the nearest major city, Larkana.  The easiest way to get to Mohenjo Daro is by taking a direct flight from Sukkur Airport to Mohenjo Daro Airport.

Alternatively, you can drive along the Indus Highway between Karachi and Peshawar. Rohri / Sukkur Toll Plaza M5 Sukkur Hyderabad MotowaysThe distance between Rohri and Mohenjo Daro is approximately 85.06 kilometres or 52.85 miles.Once you arrive at Mohenjo Daro. 

Sukkur Airport

 Sukkur Airport (IATA: SKZ, ICAO: OPSK), also known as Begum Nusrat Bhutto International Airport Sukkur, is a domestic airport located in Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan. It is a medium-sized airport located about 8 km (5.0 mi) from the center of Sukkur and serves Sukkur and its surrounding areas; Khairpur, Jacobabad, Sibi, and Shikarpur. Officially Site is. https://www.piac.com.pk/

I hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions.

Wednesday, December 27, 2023

The Rise and Fall of Rohri Cement Factory: A Historical Case Study

Rohri Cement Factory


      A Historical Industrial Site in Sindh Rohri Cement Factory is one of the oldest and largest cement plants in Pakistan. Located in Rohri, a city in the Sukkur District of Sindh Province, the factory was established in 1938 by Associated Cement Companies, a Bombay-based company that owned several cement plants in India and Pakistan.
Rohri Cement factory
Cement Factory Rohri’s 

plant with several buildings, chimneys, and silos.
Rohri’s Cement Factory 



The factory was designed and supplied by F.L. Smith, a Danish engineering company that specialized in cement production equipment¹. The factory had a capacity of producing 200 tons of cement per day, using the wet process method¹. The factory used locally available limestone, clay, and gypsum as raw materials, and coal as fuel.

     The factory played a significant role in the industrial development of the region, as well as the construction of various infrastructure projects in Pakistan. The factory supplied cement for the Sukkur Barrage, the Kotri Barrage, the Mangla Dam, the Tarbela Dam, and the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant, among others.

     The factory also provided employment and livelihood opportunities for thousands of workers and their families. The factory had its own residential colony, hospital, school, mosque, and recreational facilities for its staff and workers². The factory also supported various social and cultural activities in the area, such as sports, festivals, and community service.

     However, the factory faced several challenges and difficulties over the years, such as political instability, labor unrest, environmental issues, and technological obsolescence. The factory gradually lost its competitiveness and profitability, as newer and more efficient cement plants emerged in the market³. The factory also suffered from frequent breakdowns, power outages, and maintenance problems.

In 1996, the factory was privatised and sold to a consortium of local investors, who renamed it as Rohri Cement (Private) Limited. The new owners tried to revive the factory by investing in modernisation and expansion projects, but they failed to achieve the desired results. The factory eventually ceased its operations in 2008, and was declared as a sick industrial unit by the government.

      Today , the factory stands as a silent witness to the history and heritage of the cement industry in Pakistan. The factory is still owned by Rohri Cement (Private) Limited, but it is not operational and is in a state of decay.The factory's buildings, machinery, and equipment are rusting and deteriorating, and some of them have been vandalised or stolen.

     The factory's fate is uncertain, as there are no clear plans or proposals for its preservation or restoration. Some of the factory's former employees and local residents have expressed their concerns and hopes for the factory's future, and have urged the authorities and the owners to take some action to save the factory from further damage and destruction.

     The factory is not only a valuable industrial asset, but also a cultural and historical landmark that deserves to be protected and conserved. The factory represents the legacy and contribution of the cement industry to the development and progress of Pakistan, as well as the memories and experiences of the people who worked and lived there. The factory is a part of the identity and heritage of Rohri, Sukkur, and Sindh, and it should be recognised and respected as such.

I hope you liked the article. If you have any feedback or suggestions, please let me know. 

  • Rohri Cement Factory
  • Historical Industrial Site
  • Cement Industry in Pakistan
  • Industrial Heritage and Preservation
  • Challenges and Opportunities of Reviving Sick Industrial Units


Rohri Cement Factory is an old and large cement plant in Pakistan that was established in 1938 by a Bombay-based company. The factory used the wet process method to produce cement, and supplied cement for various infrastructure projects in Pakistan. The factory also had its own residential colony and social facilities for its workers and staff. However, the factory faced many problems and challenges, and stopped its operations in 2008. The factory is now in a state of decay and neglect, and its future is uncertain

Rohri Cement Private Limited
Head Office: 405, 4th Floor, Panorama Centre, Building No.2, Doctor Plaza, Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan Road, Saddar -Karachi.
Phone # +92-21-36450684
E-mail: info@rohricement.com
Factory: Rohri, Sukkur, Pakistan.
Phone # +92-71-650111

Sukkur Board of Education: What You Need to Know

Sukkur Board of Education: A Brief Overview

The Sukkur board of education, officially known as the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Sukkur (BISE Sukkur), is an autonomous body that oversees the secondary and higher secondary examinations in the Sukkur region of Sindh, Pakistan. The board was established in 1979 under the provision of the Ordinance No. IX of 1976¹. The board's jurisdiction covers four districts: Sukkur, Ghotki, Khairpur, and Naushahro Feroze.

     The board's mission is to ensure transparent, fair, and quality education for the students of the region. The board conducts annual and supplementary examinations for Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC) levels, as well as technical and vocational courses. The board also grants affiliation to public and private schools and colleges, prescribes curricula and textbooks, and issues certificates and diplomas to the successful candidates.

     The board has a chairman, who is the chief executive and academic officer of the board, and a secretary, who is the administrative head of the board. The board also has various committees, such as academic, finance, appointment, and discipline committees, to assist the board in its functions. The board has a staff of about 300 employees, including controllers, deputy controllers, assistant controllers, superintendents, and clerks.

     The board's main office is located at Military Road, Sukkur. The board also has a website, where students can access information about the board's policies, rules, regulations, notifications, date sheets, results, and online services. The board also has a Facebook page, Board Of Intermediate & Secondary Education Sukkur, Sindh - Bise Sukkur. where it posts updates and announcements about the board's activities.

     The board strives to improve the standard of education in the Sukkur region by providing a conducive environment for learning and assessment. The board also aims to promote the values of honesty, integrity, and excellence among the students and the staff. The board hopes to contribute to the socio-economic development of the region and the country by producing well-educated and skilled citizens.

A photo of the Sukkur board of education building, a white and blue structure with a sign that says “Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Sukkur
The main office of the Sukkur board of education


Source:

  • BISE Sukkur
  • Secondary and higher secondary examinations
  • Sukkur region of Sindh, Pakistan
  • Autonomous body established in 1979
#Sukkur, #Education, #Ghotki, #Khairpur, #Naushahro_Feroze,#Pakistan

Ajrak: The Ancient Art of Block-Printing and the Pride of Sindhi Culture

Sindhi Ajrak is a traditional textile art form that originated in the Sindh province of Pakistan and is also practiced in parts of India. It is a type of block-printing that uses stamps to create intricate patterns and designs on fabric, usually cotton or silk. The colors used are mainly deep indigo, rich crimson, white and black, which symbolize the elements of nature: sky, earth, water and fire. Ajrak is more than just a cloth; it is a cultural icon of Sindhi identity and heritage, and a sign of respect and hospitality. Ajrak is worn by both men and women, as shawls, turbans, dresses, scarves or dupattas. It is also used as a decorative item, such as a tablecloth, a wall hanging or a bedspread.

A colorful image of a Sindhi Ajrak, a traditional textile art form from Sindh, with the words “Sindhi Ajrak” in white.
Sindhi Ajrak


     The word ajrak (اجرڪ) comes from the Persian words ajar or ajor (اجر), meaning brick, and -ak (ک), meaning little. This refers to the small brick-like patterns that are common in ajrak prints. The history of ajrak can be traced back to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the region around 2500 BCE. A bust of a priest-king excavated at Mohenjo-daro, one of the major cities of the civilization, shows him wearing a garment with a trefoil pattern similar to ajrak. The same pattern has been found on objects from Mesopotamia and Egypt, indicating a possible cultural exchange. Ajrak has been preserved and passed down through generations of Sindhi artisans, who have refined and perfected the craft over time.

     The process of making ajrak is complex and labor-intensive, involving several steps of washing, dyeing, printing and drying. The fabric is first washed with a mixture of soda ash and castor oil to remove any impurities and make it soft and absorbent. Then, it is dyed with natural dyes derived from plants, minerals and insects. The most important dye is indigo, which gives the characteristic blue color to ajrak. Indigo dyeing requires a special fermentation process, in which the indigo leaves are soaked in water and lime for several days, and then the fabric is dipped and oxidized in the solution. The other dye is madder, which gives the red color to ajrak. Madder dyeing involves boiling the fabric with madder roots and alum. The white color is achieved by using a resist paste made of lime and gum arabic, which prevents the dye from penetrating the fabric. The black color is obtained by mixing iron filings and jaggery, which react with the indigo and madder dyes.

     The printing of ajrak is done by hand, using wooden blocks that are carved with intricate designs. The blocks are dipped in the dye or the resist paste, and then stamped on the fabric with precision and skill. The printing is done in multiple layers, with each layer requiring a different block and a different color. The printing process can take up to 15 days, depending on the complexity of the design and the number of colors. The final step is drying the fabric in the sun, which fixes the colors and enhances their brightness.

     Ajrak is a unique and beautiful art form that reflects the rich and diverse culture of Sindh. It is a symbol of pride, dignity and honor for the Sindhi people, who cherish and celebrate it on various occasions. Ajrak is also a source of livelihood and empowerment for many artisans, who continue to practice and promote this ancient craft in the modern world. Ajrak is not just a cloth; it is a way of life.





Sindhi Cultural Day: A Tribute to the Land of the Indus

Sindhi Cultural Day: A Tribute to the Land of the Indus

The History and Significance of Sindhi Cultural Day

Sindhi Cultural Day: A Day to Showcase Sindhi Art and Music

Sindhi Cultural Day: A Festival of Colors and Joy

Sindhi Cultural Day: How Sindhi People Preserve Their Identity and Heritage



#sindhi #ajrak #sindhiculture #blockprinting #naturaldye #indusvalley #culturalheritage #textileart #handmade #sustainablefashion

The Indus River and Rohri: A Historical and Cultural Connection

The Indus River is one of the longest and most important rivers in Asia, flowing through China, India, and Pakistan. It has been a source of life, civilisation, and trade for thousands of years, and has witnessed the rise and fall of many empires and cultures. The Indus River is also home to a rich and diverse wildlife, including the endangered Indus river dolphin.

One of the cities that lies on the banks of the Indus River is Rohri, a city of Sukkur District in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Rohri is located on the east bank of the river, directly across from Sukkur, the third largest city in Sindh. Rohri has a long and fascinating history, dating back to the ancient times.

Rohri was originally founded as Roruka, the capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, which is mentioned in early Buddhist literature. Roruka was a major trading center, and was connected to other cities by the Grand Trunk Road, one of the oldest and longest roads in Asia. Roruka was also the site of a famous battle between Alexander the Great and King Porus in 326 BCE.

Roruka was later renamed as Aror, and became the capital of the Ror dynasty, which ruled northern Sindh from the 5th century BCE to the 5th century CE. Aror was then conquered by the Rai dynasty ( Locally known as Raja Dahir ), followed by the Brahman dynasty, which were both Hindu dynasties that resisted the Arab invasion of Sindh in the 8th century CE. Aror was finally captured by the Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim in 711 CE, who established the Umayyad Caliphate in Sindh.

In 962 CE, a massive earthquake struck the region, causing the course of the Indus River to shift. Aror was abandoned and re-founded as Rohri on the new bank of the river. Rohri continued to serve as a busy port and a cultural hub, attracting many saints, poets, and scholars. Rohri is famous for its shrines, such as the Sateen Jo Aastan, the tomb of the Seven Sisters who were the daughters of a Hindu king and converted to Islam. Rohri is also known for its bridges, such as the Lansdowne Bridge and the Ayub Bridge, which span the Indus River and offer access between Rohri and Sukkur.

The Indus River and Rohri have a historical and cultural connection that spans centuries and civilizations. They are both symbols of the diversity, resilience, and beauty of the people and the land of Sindh.



A Brief Introduction to the Rai Dynasty of Sindh
A paragraph that summarises the main points of the text, such as:

A map of the Indian subcontinent in the 6th century CE, showing the political boundaries of various kingdoms and regions. The map is colored according to the dominant religion of each area: Hinduism (orange), Buddhism (yellow), Jainism (green), and Zoroastrianism (red). The map also shows the major rivers, mountains, and cities of the region. The focus of the map is on the province of Sindh, which is located in the lower right corner of the map, along the Indus River. Sindh is marked by a black border and labeled as "Rai dynasty". The Rai dynasty was the first known ruling dynasty of Sindh, and it controlled much of the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent. The map also shows the neighboring kingdoms and regions that had relations with the Rai dynasty, such as the Hephthalites, the Sassanians, the Gupta Empire, the Chalukyas, and the Maitrakas.


Source 

The Harappan Civilization and its Neighbors: This article explores the history, culture, and legacy of the Harappan Civilization, also known as the Indus River Valley Civilization, which flourished along the Indus River and its tributaries from 3300 to 1300 BCE. It highlights the features and achievements of its two main urban centers, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and how they differed from and interacted with other ancient civilisations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China.

The Indus River and its Role in Asia: This article provides a comprehensive overview of the Indus River, one of the major rivers in Asia. It follows the source, path, branches, watershed, weather, environment, and past of the river, as well as its importance for the people and the region of South Asia.


The Harappan Culture and its History: This article introduces the Harappan Culture, also known as the Indus River Valley Civilization, which thrived along the Indus River and its branches from 3300 to 1300 BCE. It describes the location, society, commerce, faith, and downfall of this ancient civilisations.







Tuesday, December 26, 2023

Rohri Pays Tribute to the Casualties of the Indian Bombing on December 5th

     The war between India and Pakistan in 1971 brought a lot of destruction to Rohri. On December 5, a Sunday, two Indian jets flew low over Rohri and bombed the railway station. They targeted the Lansdowne bridge and the office of the station master. The Mehran train, which went from Karachi to Lahore via Rohri, was stopped at the junction. The Indian Air Force had been attacking the Pakistani railways to cut off their supply lines and troop movements. The train was one of their victims. A loud sound and two big blasts shook the station. After that, Indian jets would return every day. On December 10, a Friday, they struck again. They hit the area from the Railway Girls School to the Takkar muhala. Many people lost their lives in the attack, and the rest of Rohri fled in panic, leaving the city deserted. The war came to an end on December 13, when General Niazi gave up in Dacca, and then the people came back to Rohri.




 Rohri Pays Tribute to the Casualties of the Indian Bombing on December 5th
https://youtu.be/o9K-PLa2Yeg


Source: 

 There are many eyewitness accounts of war from different times and places. Some of them are published in books, articles, or websites, while others are recorded in oral histories or archives. Here are some examples of sources that you can explore: 

 Note:

 Eyewitnesses can offer a unique and personal perspective on an event that may not be captured by other sources of information, such as documents, records, or media. Eyewitnesses can also help to corroborate or contradict other evidence, and to fill in the gaps or resolve the ambiguities in the historical or legal record. Eyewitnesses can also provide emotional and moral insights that can enrich our understanding and appreciation of the human experience of an event. Therefore, eyewitnesses play a crucial role in legal and historical contexts, as they can provide valuable information and evidence that can help to establish the facts and the truth of what happened.

Thank you very much for sharing your story with us

Sunday, December 24, 2023

Exploring the Kot Diji Fort: A Historical and Cultural Treasure of Pakistan

Kot Diji (Sindhiڪوٽ ڏیجيUrduکوٹ ڈیجی)

     Pakistan is a country with a rich and diverse history, culture, and heritage. One of the most fascinating and impressive examples of this is the Kot Diji Fort, an 18th-century fort that stands on a hill overlooking the town of Kot Diji in Khairpur District, Sindh. The fort is a symbol of the Talpur dynasty, which ruled over Upper Sindh from 1783 to 1843, and resisted the British invasion until their defeat at the Battle of Miani.      

     The fort is also located near a prehistoric archaeological site, where remains of a pre-Harappan civilization dating back to 2500 to 2800 BCE have been found. This site is considered to be the forerunner of the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the oldest and most advanced civilizations in the world.

     In this article, we will take a closer look at the Kot Diji Fort, its history, architecture, and significance, and why it is a must-visit destination for anyone interested in the heritage of Pakistan.

History of the Kot Diji Fort

The Kot Diji Fort, also known as Fort Ahmadabad, was built by Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur, the founder of the Kingdom of Upper Sindh, between 1785 and 1795. The fort was named after his daughter, Bibi Fatima, who was also known as Kot Diji. The fort was designed to withstand any attack from the enemies, especially the British, who were expanding their influence in the region. The fort was never conquered by any foreign power, and remained the stronghold of the Talpur rulers until 1843, when they were defeated by the British at the Battle of Miani. The fort was then used as a military outpost by the British until 1947, when Pakistan gained its independence.

Architecture of the Kot Diji Fort

The fort is built on a high hill, about 110 feet above the ground, with 30 feet high walls. It was constructed with locally available kiln-baked bricks and no stone was used in its construction because the stone of this region is brittle and easily breaks into pieces. The fort has a perimeter of 1.8 kilometers and has only one entrance, called the Shahi Darwaza, which is 13 feet high and 10 feet wide, and is reinforced with 235 pointed iron spikes to prevent any enemy attack. The fort has three strategically placed towers, each 50 feet tall, and several sites for cannon placement. It also has numerous inner passages, cells, and chambers for protection and administration. The fort also contains a water reservoir, a munition storage, a prison, a courtroom, and a small regal residence.

Significance of the Kot Diji Fort

The Kot Diji Fort is a remarkable example of the rich and diverse history of Pakistan, and a testament to the courage and resilience of the people who built it and defended it. The fort offers a stunning view of the town of Kot Diji, and the surrounding landscape of the Thar Desert. The fort is also located near a prehistoric archaeological site, where remains of a pre-Harappan civilization dating back to 2500 to 2800 BCE have been found. This site is considered to be the forerunner of the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the oldest and most advanced civilizations in the world. The site has revealed evidence of urban planning, pottery, bronze tools, and stone artifacts that show the cultural and technological development of the people who lived there.

     The Kot Diji Fort is a protected heritage site, and a popular tourist attraction. It is a place where visitors can learn about the history and culture of Pakistan, and appreciate the beauty and craftsmanship of the fort. The fort is also a source of pride and inspiration for the people of Pakistan, as it represents their glorious past and their potential for the future.

How to Visit Kot Diji: A Guide for Travelers

If you are looking for a unique and memorable destination in Pakistan, you should consider visiting Kot Diji, a historical and archaeological site in Sindh province. Kot Diji is home to an 18th-century fort and a prehistoric site that are both worth exploring. In this article, I will share with you some tips and information on how to visit Kot Diji, what to see and do there, and why it is a place of great cultural and historical significance.

How to get to Kot Diji

Kot Diji is located about 25 km (15 mi) south of Khairpur, the capital of Khairpur District, on the east bank of the Indus River. You can reach Kot Diji by road from Khairpur, which is well-connected by bus and train to other major cities in Pakistan, such as Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, and Multan. You can also take a taxi or rent a car from Khairpur to Kot Diji, which will take about 30 minutes. Alternatively, you can fly to Sukkur Airport, which is about 80 km (50 mi) north of Kot Diji, and then take a bus or a taxi to Khairpur and then to Kot Diji.

What to see and do in Kot Diji

The main attraction in Kot Diji is the Kot Diji Fort, also known as Fort Ahmadabad, which was built by Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur, the founder of the Kingdom of Upper Sindh, between 1785 and 1795. The fort is a magnificent example of the military and architectural prowess of the Talpur dynasty, which ruled over Upper Sindh from 1783 to 1843. The fort is made of limestone and burnt bricks, and has a perimeter of 1.8 kilometers. It has three towers, each 50 feet tall, and 30-foot-high walls that encircle the uppermost part of the hill. The fort has several sites for cannon placement, and numerous inner passages for protection. It also has a water reservoir, a munition storage, a prison, a courtroom, and a small regal residence.

     You can enter the fort through the Shahi Darwaza, the only entrance, which is 13 feet high and 10 feet wide, and is reinforced with 235 pointed iron spikes to prevent any enemy attack. Inside the fort, you can explore the various chambers, cells, and passages, and admire the intricate details and decorations. You can also enjoy the stunning view of the town of Kot Diji, and the surrounding landscape of the Thar Desert, from the top of the fort.

Another attraction in Kot Diji is the archaeological site, which is located near the fort. This site is considered to be the forerunner of the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the oldest and most advanced civilizations in the world. The site dates back to 3300 BCE, and reveals evidence of urban planning, pottery, bronze tools, and stone artifacts that show the cultural and technological development of the people who lived there. You can see some of the excavated remains and artifacts at the site, and learn more about the history and culture of this ancient civilization.

Why visit Kot Diji

     Kot Diji is a place where you can experience the rich and diverse history and heritage of Pakistan, and appreciate the beauty and craftsmanship of the fort and the prehistoric site. Kot Diji is a place where you can learn about the history and culture of the Talpur dynasty, which resisted the British invasion until their defeat at the Battle of Miani in 1843. Kot Diji is also a place where you can discover the origins of the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the region around 2500 BCE, and influenced the cultures of South Asia and beyond. Kot Diji is a place where you can enjoy the scenic views of the Indus River, the Thar Desert, and the Rohri Hills, and experience the rural life and hospitality of the Sindhi people.

I hope you enjoyed this article, and found it useful for planning your trip to Kot Diji. If you did, please share it with your friends and family, and let me know your feedback in the comments. Thank you for reading, and have a great day! 


  • History of Kot Digi Fort
  • Architecture of Kot Digi Fort
  • Significance of Kot Digi Fort
  • Kot Digi Fort and Pre-Harappan Civilization
  • Kot Digi Fort and Talpur Dynasty
  • Kot Digi Fort and British Invasion
  • Kot Digi Fort and Heritage of Pakistan
  • Kot Digi Fort and Tourism
  • Kot Digi Fort and Thar Desert
  • Kot Digi Fort and Indus Valley Civilization



Saturday, December 23, 2023

Exploring Sadh Belo rohri: The Largest Hindu Temple in Pakistan

Picture Source Wikipedia Sadh Belo
Sadh Belo (Sindhiساڌ ٻيلوUrduسادھ بھيلو) It’s Sindhi Language  Meaning Island of Sadh


     Sukkur, a city in the Sindh province of Pakistan, is known for its historical and cultural attractions. One of the most remarkable places in Sukkur is Sadhu Belo, an island in the Indus River that is home to a highly revered Hindu temple complex. Sadhu Belo, which means the woods of the sage, is associated with the syncretic Udasi movement of Sikhism. The island is also famous for Teerath Asthan, which is the biggest Hindu temple in Pakistan.

The History of Sadhu Belo

The island of Sadhu Belo was once a forested island called Menak Parbat. According to legend, the island was visited by Lord Rama, the hero of the Hindu epic Ramayana, during his exile. The island was also a place of meditation for many sages and saints.

The most prominent figure in the history of Sadhu Belo is Baba Bankhandi Maharaj, an Udasi saint who founded the temple complex in 1823. Baba Bankhandi Maharaj was born as Balchand Sharma, and he came to Sindh from either Delhi or Nepal when he was 15 years old. He settled on the island and became known as the sage of the woods. He established a dhuni, a sacred fire, on the island and attracted many followers and devotees. He also built a temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, the supreme deity of Hinduism.

Baba Bankhandi Maharaj was a visionary and a philanthropist. He is credited with building a bridge across the Indus River, connecting Sukkur and Rohri . He also dug wells and planted trees on the island, making it a green and fertile place. He also performed many miracles and healed many people. He died in 1899 and his samadhi, or tomb, is located on the island.

The Architecture of Sadhu Belo

The temple complex of Sadhu Belo is spread over two interconnected islands: Sadhu Belo and Deen Belo. The complex has nine temples, a library, a dining area, a garden, and residences for monks and pilgrims. The temples are dedicated to various Hindu gods and goddesses, such as Shiva, Vishnu, Ganesha, Hanuman, Durga, and Kali. The temples are adorned with intricate marble work, colorful paintings, and statues. The complex also has a museum that displays relics and artifacts related to the history and culture of Hinduism and Sikhism in Sindh.

The most prominent temple in the complex is Teerath Asthan, which means the place of pilgrimage. Teerath Asthan is the biggest Hindu temple in Pakistan and can accommodate up to 10,000 people. The temple was built in 1938 by Sant Ganga Ram, a disciple of Baba Bankhandi Maharaj. The temple has a dome-shaped roof and a spire that rises above the river. The temple has a large hall where the main idol of Lord Shiva is installed. The temple also has a shivalinga, a symbol of Shiva, that is believed to have been brought by Baba Bankhandi Maharaj from the Himalayas. The temple is the site of many festivals and ceremonies, such as Shivratri, the birthday of Lord Shiva, and Bankhandi Mela, the death anniversary of Baba Bankhandi Maharaj.

The Significance of Sadhu Belo

Sadhu Belo is a sacred and peaceful place for Hindus and Sikhs in Pakistan and abroad. The island is a symbol of harmony and tolerance, as it welcomes people of all faiths and backgrounds. The island is also a source of inspiration and education, as it preserves and promotes the rich heritage and traditions of Hinduism and Sikhism in Sindh. The island is also a place of service and charity, as it provides free food, water, and accommodation to the visitors and the needy.

Sadhu Belo is a unique and beautiful island that reflects the diversity and spirituality of Pakistan. It is a place that deserves to be visited and appreciated by everyone.


Source Books Sukkur and Online source