Wednesday, December 27, 2023

The Rise and Fall of Rohri Cement Factory: A Historical Case Study

Rohri Cement Factory

      A Historical Industrial Site in Sindh Rohri Cement Factory is one of the oldest and largest cement plants in Pakistan. Located in Rohri, a city in the Sukkur District of Sindh Province, the factory was established in 1938 by Associated Cement Companies, a Bombay-based company that owned several cement plants in India and Pakistan.
Rohri Cement factory
Cement Factory Rohri’s 

plant with several buildings, chimneys, and silos.
Rohri’s Cement Factory 

The factory was designed and supplied by F.L. Smith, a Danish engineering company that specialized in cement production equipment¹. The factory had a capacity of producing 200 tons of cement per day, using the wet process method¹. The factory used locally available limestone, clay, and gypsum as raw materials, and coal as fuel.

     The factory played a significant role in the industrial development of the region, as well as the construction of various infrastructure projects in Pakistan. The factory supplied cement for the Sukkur Barrage, the Kotri Barrage, the Mangla Dam, the Tarbela Dam, and the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant, among others.

     The factory also provided employment and livelihood opportunities for thousands of workers and their families. The factory had its own residential colony, hospital, school, mosque, and recreational facilities for its staff and workers². The factory also supported various social and cultural activities in the area, such as sports, festivals, and community service.

     However, the factory faced several challenges and difficulties over the years, such as political instability, labor unrest, environmental issues, and technological obsolescence. The factory gradually lost its competitiveness and profitability, as newer and more efficient cement plants emerged in the market³. The factory also suffered from frequent breakdowns, power outages, and maintenance problems.

In 1996, the factory was privatised and sold to a consortium of local investors, who renamed it as Rohri Cement (Private) Limited. The new owners tried to revive the factory by investing in modernisation and expansion projects, but they failed to achieve the desired results. The factory eventually ceased its operations in 2008, and was declared as a sick industrial unit by the government.

      Today , the factory stands as a silent witness to the history and heritage of the cement industry in Pakistan. The factory is still owned by Rohri Cement (Private) Limited, but it is not operational and is in a state of decay.The factory's buildings, machinery, and equipment are rusting and deteriorating, and some of them have been vandalised or stolen.

     The factory's fate is uncertain, as there are no clear plans or proposals for its preservation or restoration. Some of the factory's former employees and local residents have expressed their concerns and hopes for the factory's future, and have urged the authorities and the owners to take some action to save the factory from further damage and destruction.

     The factory is not only a valuable industrial asset, but also a cultural and historical landmark that deserves to be protected and conserved. The factory represents the legacy and contribution of the cement industry to the development and progress of Pakistan, as well as the memories and experiences of the people who worked and lived there. The factory is a part of the identity and heritage of Rohri, Sukkur, and Sindh, and it should be recognised and respected as such.

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  • Rohri Cement Factory
  • Historical Industrial Site
  • Cement Industry in Pakistan
  • Industrial Heritage and Preservation
  • Challenges and Opportunities of Reviving Sick Industrial Units

Rohri Cement Factory is an old and large cement plant in Pakistan that was established in 1938 by a Bombay-based company. The factory used the wet process method to produce cement, and supplied cement for various infrastructure projects in Pakistan. The factory also had its own residential colony and social facilities for its workers and staff. However, the factory faced many problems and challenges, and stopped its operations in 2008. The factory is now in a state of decay and neglect, and its future is uncertain

Rohri Cement Private Limited
Head Office: 405, 4th Floor, Panorama Centre, Building No.2, Doctor Plaza, Raja Ghazanfar Ali Khan Road, Saddar -Karachi.
Phone # +92-21-36450684
Factory: Rohri, Sukkur, Pakistan.
Phone # +92-71-650111

Sukkur Board of Education: What You Need to Know

Sukkur Board of Education: A Brief Overview

The Sukkur board of education, officially known as the Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Sukkur (BISE Sukkur), is an autonomous body that oversees the secondary and higher secondary examinations in the Sukkur region of Sindh, Pakistan. The board was established in 1979 under the provision of the Ordinance No. IX of 1976¹. The board's jurisdiction covers four districts: Sukkur, Ghotki, Khairpur, and Naushahro Feroze.

     The board's mission is to ensure transparent, fair, and quality education for the students of the region. The board conducts annual and supplementary examinations for Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC) levels, as well as technical and vocational courses. The board also grants affiliation to public and private schools and colleges, prescribes curricula and textbooks, and issues certificates and diplomas to the successful candidates.

     The board has a chairman, who is the chief executive and academic officer of the board, and a secretary, who is the administrative head of the board. The board also has various committees, such as academic, finance, appointment, and discipline committees, to assist the board in its functions. The board has a staff of about 300 employees, including controllers, deputy controllers, assistant controllers, superintendents, and clerks.

     The board's main office is located at Military Road, Sukkur. The board also has a website, where students can access information about the board's policies, rules, regulations, notifications, date sheets, results, and online services. The board also has a Facebook page, Board Of Intermediate & Secondary Education Sukkur, Sindh - Bise Sukkur. where it posts updates and announcements about the board's activities.

     The board strives to improve the standard of education in the Sukkur region by providing a conducive environment for learning and assessment. The board also aims to promote the values of honesty, integrity, and excellence among the students and the staff. The board hopes to contribute to the socio-economic development of the region and the country by producing well-educated and skilled citizens.

A photo of the Sukkur board of education building, a white and blue structure with a sign that says “Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education Sukkur
The main office of the Sukkur board of education


  • BISE Sukkur
  • Secondary and higher secondary examinations
  • Sukkur region of Sindh, Pakistan
  • Autonomous body established in 1979
#Sukkur, #Education, #Ghotki, #Khairpur, #Naushahro_Feroze,#Pakistan

Ajrak: The Ancient Art of Block-Printing and the Pride of Sindhi Culture

Sindhi Ajrak is a traditional textile art form that originated in the Sindh province of Pakistan and is also practiced in parts of India. It is a type of block-printing that uses stamps to create intricate patterns and designs on fabric, usually cotton or silk. The colors used are mainly deep indigo, rich crimson, white and black, which symbolize the elements of nature: sky, earth, water and fire. Ajrak is more than just a cloth; it is a cultural icon of Sindhi identity and heritage, and a sign of respect and hospitality. Ajrak is worn by both men and women, as shawls, turbans, dresses, scarves or dupattas. It is also used as a decorative item, such as a tablecloth, a wall hanging or a bedspread.

A colorful image of a Sindhi Ajrak, a traditional textile art form from Sindh, with the words “Sindhi Ajrak” in white.
Sindhi Ajrak

     The word ajrak (اجرڪ) comes from the Persian words ajar or ajor (اجر), meaning brick, and -ak (ک), meaning little. This refers to the small brick-like patterns that are common in ajrak prints. The history of ajrak can be traced back to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the region around 2500 BCE. A bust of a priest-king excavated at Mohenjo-daro, one of the major cities of the civilization, shows him wearing a garment with a trefoil pattern similar to ajrak. The same pattern has been found on objects from Mesopotamia and Egypt, indicating a possible cultural exchange. Ajrak has been preserved and passed down through generations of Sindhi artisans, who have refined and perfected the craft over time.

     The process of making ajrak is complex and labor-intensive, involving several steps of washing, dyeing, printing and drying. The fabric is first washed with a mixture of soda ash and castor oil to remove any impurities and make it soft and absorbent. Then, it is dyed with natural dyes derived from plants, minerals and insects. The most important dye is indigo, which gives the characteristic blue color to ajrak. Indigo dyeing requires a special fermentation process, in which the indigo leaves are soaked in water and lime for several days, and then the fabric is dipped and oxidized in the solution. The other dye is madder, which gives the red color to ajrak. Madder dyeing involves boiling the fabric with madder roots and alum. The white color is achieved by using a resist paste made of lime and gum arabic, which prevents the dye from penetrating the fabric. The black color is obtained by mixing iron filings and jaggery, which react with the indigo and madder dyes.

     The printing of ajrak is done by hand, using wooden blocks that are carved with intricate designs. The blocks are dipped in the dye or the resist paste, and then stamped on the fabric with precision and skill. The printing is done in multiple layers, with each layer requiring a different block and a different color. The printing process can take up to 15 days, depending on the complexity of the design and the number of colors. The final step is drying the fabric in the sun, which fixes the colors and enhances their brightness.

     Ajrak is a unique and beautiful art form that reflects the rich and diverse culture of Sindh. It is a symbol of pride, dignity and honor for the Sindhi people, who cherish and celebrate it on various occasions. Ajrak is also a source of livelihood and empowerment for many artisans, who continue to practice and promote this ancient craft in the modern world. Ajrak is not just a cloth; it is a way of life.

Sindhi Cultural Day: A Tribute to the Land of the Indus

Sindhi Cultural Day: A Tribute to the Land of the Indus

The History and Significance of Sindhi Cultural Day

Sindhi Cultural Day: A Day to Showcase Sindhi Art and Music

Sindhi Cultural Day: A Festival of Colors and Joy

Sindhi Cultural Day: How Sindhi People Preserve Their Identity and Heritage

#sindhi #ajrak #sindhiculture #blockprinting #naturaldye #indusvalley #culturalheritage #textileart #handmade #sustainablefashion

The Indus River and Rohri: A Historical and Cultural Connection

The Indus River is one of the longest and most important rivers in Asia, flowing through China, India, and Pakistan. It has been a source of life, civilisation, and trade for thousands of years, and has witnessed the rise and fall of many empires and cultures. The Indus River is also home to a rich and diverse wildlife, including the endangered Indus river dolphin.

One of the cities that lies on the banks of the Indus River is Rohri, a city of Sukkur District in the Sindh province of Pakistan. Rohri is located on the east bank of the river, directly across from Sukkur, the third largest city in Sindh. Rohri has a long and fascinating history, dating back to the ancient times.

Rohri was originally founded as Roruka, the capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, which is mentioned in early Buddhist literature. Roruka was a major trading center, and was connected to other cities by the Grand Trunk Road, one of the oldest and longest roads in Asia. Roruka was also the site of a famous battle between Alexander the Great and King Porus in 326 BCE.

Roruka was later renamed as Aror, and became the capital of the Ror dynasty, which ruled northern Sindh from the 5th century BCE to the 5th century CE. Aror was then conquered by the Rai dynasty ( Locally known as Raja Dahir ), followed by the Brahman dynasty, which were both Hindu dynasties that resisted the Arab invasion of Sindh in the 8th century CE. Aror was finally captured by the Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim in 711 CE, who established the Umayyad Caliphate in Sindh.

In 962 CE, a massive earthquake struck the region, causing the course of the Indus River to shift. Aror was abandoned and re-founded as Rohri on the new bank of the river. Rohri continued to serve as a busy port and a cultural hub, attracting many saints, poets, and scholars. Rohri is famous for its shrines, such as the Sateen Jo Aastan, the tomb of the Seven Sisters who were the daughters of a Hindu king and converted to Islam. Rohri is also known for its bridges, such as the Lansdowne Bridge and the Ayub Bridge, which span the Indus River and offer access between Rohri and Sukkur.

The Indus River and Rohri have a historical and cultural connection that spans centuries and civilizations. They are both symbols of the diversity, resilience, and beauty of the people and the land of Sindh.

A Brief Introduction to the Rai Dynasty of Sindh
A paragraph that summarises the main points of the text, such as:

A map of the Indian subcontinent in the 6th century CE, showing the political boundaries of various kingdoms and regions. The map is colored according to the dominant religion of each area: Hinduism (orange), Buddhism (yellow), Jainism (green), and Zoroastrianism (red). The map also shows the major rivers, mountains, and cities of the region. The focus of the map is on the province of Sindh, which is located in the lower right corner of the map, along the Indus River. Sindh is marked by a black border and labeled as "Rai dynasty". The Rai dynasty was the first known ruling dynasty of Sindh, and it controlled much of the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent. The map also shows the neighboring kingdoms and regions that had relations with the Rai dynasty, such as the Hephthalites, the Sassanians, the Gupta Empire, the Chalukyas, and the Maitrakas.


The Harappan Civilization and its Neighbors: This article explores the history, culture, and legacy of the Harappan Civilization, also known as the Indus River Valley Civilization, which flourished along the Indus River and its tributaries from 3300 to 1300 BCE. It highlights the features and achievements of its two main urban centers, Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, and how they differed from and interacted with other ancient civilisations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and China.

The Indus River and its Role in Asia: This article provides a comprehensive overview of the Indus River, one of the major rivers in Asia. It follows the source, path, branches, watershed, weather, environment, and past of the river, as well as its importance for the people and the region of South Asia.

The Harappan Culture and its History: This article introduces the Harappan Culture, also known as the Indus River Valley Civilization, which thrived along the Indus River and its branches from 3300 to 1300 BCE. It describes the location, society, commerce, faith, and downfall of this ancient civilisations.